2.3.1 Summary of evidence and rationale

People living with HIV are approximately 19 times more likely to develop TB disease than those without HIV; in 2019, an estimated 44% of people living with HIV who also had TB disease did not reach care, and 30% of all HIV-related deaths were due to TB (1). Thus, ensuring early detection and treatment for TB among all people living with HIV is crucial for reducing morbidity and mortality in this group.

This recommendation, which applies to people of all ages, was first published in 2011 in WHO’s Guidelines for intensified tuberculosis case-finding and isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings (19), and it remains in place. The GDG placed high value on ensuring that TB is diagnosed early in this risk group, which has a high likelihood of having undetected TB and a high risk of poor health outcomes in the absence of early diagnosis and treatment.

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