3.1 Eligibility

Any patient – whether a child or an adult – with DS-TB is eligible for this regimen. The regimen is considered safe for pregnant women; it can also be used in children of all ages, although ethambutol can be omitted for patients who are HIV-negative or in settings with a low prevalence of HIV or isoniazid resistance. Patients without a history of TB disease and treatment are less likely to have strains resistant to first-line medicines, although infection by the resistant strains often cannot be ruled out, especially in resource-limited settings. Where possible, it is best to ascertain susceptibility to the medicines used; susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin (the most potent drugs in the regimen) is particularly important.

In patients with evidence of resistance to isoniazid or rifampicin, this regimen cannot be used; instead, a specific regimen needs to be designed, as described elsewhere (18).

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