5.1.4. Monitoring and evaluation

The clinical monitoring requirements for the shorter regimen remain the same as for the 6-month regimen and treatment outcomes are determined at the end of the 4-month regimen.

Should there be insufficient clinical improvement after completion of the 4-month regimen, the clinician may decide to extend treatment to 6 months while considering alternative diagnoses, including DR-TB.

Monitoring for potential relapse is a priority for shorter regimens especially when they are introduced into programmatic settings. Therefore, follow-up of children and young adolescents for up to 12 months after completion of the 4-month regimen is important.

³⁰ This level of resistance was defined as countries, subnational administrative units, or selected facilities, where the HIV prevalence among adult pregnant women is ≥1% or among TB patients is ≥5% in the 2014 Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children (second edition) (8).

³¹ WHO does not intend to establish thresholds for low, moderate or high levels of prevalence of isoniazid resistance; instead NTPs will establish definitions for their own countries.

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