Despite challenges with bacteriological confirmation of paucibacillary TB in young children, every effort should be made to establish bacteriological confirmation. In adolescents, who usually have adult-type disease, bacteriological confirmation is common.
Bacteriological confirmation is even more important for children and adolescents who:
- have presumed DR-TB;
- are living with HIV;
- have complicated (e.g. airway obstruction, pneumothorax, empyema) or severe TB disease;
- have an uncertain diagnosis;
- have been treated previously