4.3.5. Bacteriological confirmation

Despite challenges with bacteriological confirmation of paucibacillary TB in young children, every effort should be made to establish bacteriological confirmation. In adolescents, who usually have adult-type disease, bacteriological confirmation is common.

Bacteriological confirmation is even more important for children and adolescents who:

  • have presumed DR-TB;
  • are living with HIV;
  • have complicated (e.g. airway obstruction, pneumothorax, empyema) or severe TB disease;
  • have an uncertain diagnosis;
  • have been treated previously

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