The WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis (28) and the WHO operational handbook on tuberculosis (15) identify two broad at-risk child and adolescent populations that need systematic assessment for eligibility for TPT:
- children and adolescents with elevated risk of progression from TB infection to TB disease, including children and adolescents living with HIV and adolescents with specific comorbidities or on specific treatment (e.g. anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, dialysis, preparing for organ or haematological transplantation);
- children and adolescents with increased likelihood of exposure to TB, including household contacts of people with bacteriologically confirmed TB and those living or working in institutional or crowded settings (e.g. recent immigrants from high TB burden countries, homeless people, people who use drugs).