This operational handbook was prepared by Saskia den Boon and Cecily Miller, with input from Dennis Falzon and Matteo Zignol, under the overall direction of Tereza Kasaeva, Director, WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme. The WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme gratefully acknowledges the contributions of all experts and reviewers involved in the production of the latest update of the WHO guidelines on systematic screening for TB disease, on which this handbook is based, as well as other contributors listed below. The handbook was funded by grants provided to WHO by USAID and the Russian Federation.

Peer reviewers of this handbook

Teeb Al-Samarrai (US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), Mirjam Bakker (Royal Tropical Institute, Netherlands), David Branigan (Treatment Action Group, United States of America), Macarthur Charles (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Charlotte Colvin (US Agency for International Development), Jacob Creswell (Stop TB Partnership, Switzerland), Christopher Gilpin (International Organization for Migration, Switzerland), Jeremy Hill (KNCV, Netherlands), Kobto Ghislain Koura (The Union, France) Alena Skrahina (National TB Programme, Belarus), Marieke van der Werf (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Sweden).

Other contributors

The Guideline Development Group comprised Denise Arakaki-Sanchez (Ministry of Health, Brazil), Omolola Atalabi (University College Hospital (Ibadan), Nigeria), Helen Ayles (Infectious Diseases and International Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Zambia), David Branigan (Treatment Action Group, USA), Jeremiah Chakaya (The Union, Kenya), Gavin Churchyard (The Aurum Institute, South Africa), Elizabeth Corbett (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Malawi), Anand Date (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA), Esty Febriani (Civil Society Task Force, Indonesia), Celine Garfin (National TB Programme, Philippines), Amir M Khan (Association for Social Development, Pakistan), Katharina Kranzer (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Tamara Kredo (University of Cape Town, South Africa), Knut Lönnroth (Karolinska Institute, Sweden), Guy Marks (University of Sydney, Australia), Andrey Maryandyshev (Northern State Medical University, Russian Federation), David Mungai (Civil Society Task Force, Kenya), Iveta Ozere (Centre of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Latvia), Alena Skrahina (National TB Programme, Belarus) and Marieke J. van der Werf (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Sweden). Jeremiah Chakaya and Tamara Kredo co-chaired the meetings of the Guideline Development Group.

Holger Schünemann (McMaster University, Canada) served as technical resource person for GRADE methodology. The following people participated as observers in the Guideline Development Group meetings: Sevim Ahmedov and Charlotte Colvin (US Agency for International Development, USA), Draurio Barreira Cravo Neto (UNITAID, Switzerland), Olivia Bierman (Karolinska Institute, Sweden), Michael Campbell (Clinton Health Access Initiative, USA), Pierre-Marie David (Université de Montréal, Canada), Brian Kaiser (Global Drug Facility, Switzerland), Christopher Gilpin (International Organization for Migration, Switzerland) and Mohammed Yassin (Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, Switzerland). Kerri Viney (WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme) contributed to the reviews on the accuracy of screening approaches in the general population. Corinne Merle, Vanessa Veronese and Debora Pedrazzoli of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) contributed to the development of the computer-aided detection (CAD) toolkit described in section 4. Emanuele Pontali and Elizabeth Harausz were involved in preparing first drafts of sections 5 and 6, respectively. Annabel Baddeley contributed to Chapter 5 and Sabine Verkuijl to Chapter 6. Nazir Ismail and Alexei Korobitsyn (WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme) and Rajendra Yadav (WHO Philippines) reviewed the handbook. Zhi Zhen Qin (Stop TB Partnership, Geneva) contributed to the section on CAD and Christina Yoon (University of California at San Francisco, USA) to the section on C-reactive protein (CRP). Christopher Dobosz designed the algorithm figures. The academic groups that reviewed the evidence for the 2021 update of the TB screening guidelines are also acknowledged (full list included in the guidelines document). The WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme also thanks the Guideline Review Committee and its WHO secretariat for reviewing and approving the guidelines and the staff of the WHO department of Quality Assurance of Norms and Standards for their support in finalizing this handbook. The operational handbook was edited by Elisabeth Heseltine.

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