This operational handbook was led by Nazir Ahmed Ismail, Carl-Michael Nathanson, Dennis Falzon, Alexei Korobitsyn and Avinash Kanchar, with support from Cecily Miller and Matteo Zignol, under the overall direction of Tereza Kasaeva, Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global TB Programme (GTB). The first draft was written by Richard (Dick) Menzies, Lika Apriani and Anete Trajman from the McGill International TB Centre, Canada. WHO/ GTB gratefully acknowledges the support of the following experts who have contributed to the review of the document: Christopher Coulter, Queensland Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory, Australia; Rumina Hasan, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; Afrânio Lineu Kritski, University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Siva Kumar Shanmugam, Department of Bacteriology, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Indian Council of Medical Research, India; Irina Lyadova, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Basis of Histogenesis, Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation; Alberto Matteelli, University of Brescia, Italy; Jeremiah Chakaya Muhwa, Co-chair, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Nairobi, Kenya; Shaheed Vally Omar, Centre for Tuberculosis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases/National Health Laboratory Service and WHO SRL, Johannesburg, South Africa; and Thomas Shinnick, independent consultant, United States of America.

This product was developed with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

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