Children living with HIV have a high risk of rapid progression to severe disease and death if a diagnosis of TB is missed. A child living with HIV is 3.5 times more likely to progress to TB disease than a child who is HIV-negative (29). The risk, although greatly reduced, remains elevated in children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). An estimated 10% of paediatric deaths from TB are among children living with HIV, with 21 000 deaths annually (1). It is for this reason that WHO strongly recommends that children living with HIV are screened for TB.