7.3 Subgroup considerations

The relative benefits of surgery are expected to depend substantially on the population subgroups that are targeted. The analysis could not provide a refined differentiation of the type of patient who would be best suited to benefit from the intervention or the type of intervention that would have the most benefit. The effect is expected to be moderate in the average patient considered appropriate for surgery. The odds of success for patients with XDR-TB (pre-2021 definition) were statistically significantly lower when they underwent surgery compared with other patients (aOR: 0.4, 95% CL: 0.2–0.9). This effect is likely to be biased, given that patients who underwent surgery would have had other factors predisposing to poor outcomes that could not be adjusted for.

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