1. Global tuberculosis report 2018 (WHO/ CDS/TB/2018.20). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 ( pdf?ua=1, accessed 18 December 2018).

2. The End TB Strategy: global strategy and targets for tuberculosis prevention, care and control after 2015. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (, accessed 18 December 2018)

3. Kendall EA, Fofana MO, Dowdy DW. Burden of transmitted multidrug resistance in epidemics of tuberculosis: a transmission modelling analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(12):963–72 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

4. Fox GJ, Schaaf H, Mandalakas A, Chiappini E, Zumla A, Marais B. Preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and protecting contacts of infectious cases. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;23(3):147–53 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

5. Guidelines for the prevention of tuberculosis in health care facilities in resource-limited settings (WHO/CDS/ TB/99.269). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999 ( publications/who_tb_99_269.pdf?ua=1, accessed 18 December 2018)

6. Tuberculosis infection-control in the era of expanding HIV care and treatment – addendum to WHO guidelines for the prevention of tuberculosis in health care facilities in resource-limited settings. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999 ( WHO_TB_99.269_ADD_eng.pdf?sequence=2, accessed 18 December 2018).

7. WHO policy on TB infection control in health-care facilities, congregate settings and households (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.419) Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009 ( handle/10665/44148/9789241598323_ eng.pdf?sequence=1, accessed 18 December 2018).

8. Marais BJ, Lönnroth K, Lawn SD, Migliori GB, Mwaba P, Glaziou P et al. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and noncommunicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(5):436–48 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

9. Hyle EP, Naidoo K, Su AE, El-Sadr WM, Freedberg KA. HIV, tuberculosis, and noncommunicable diseases: what is known about the costs, effects, and costeffectiveness of integrated care? JAIDS. 2014;67(Suppl 1):S87–95 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

10. Estebesova A. Systematic review of infection prevention and control policies and nosocomial transmission of drugresistant tuberculosis. School of Public Health, Georgia State University; 2013 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

11. Claassens MM, Van Schalkwyk C, Du Toit E, Roest E, Lombard CJ, Enarson DA et al. Tuberculosis in healthcare workers and infection control measures at primary healthcare facilities in South Africa. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e76272 (https://journals. pone.0076272, accessed 18 December 2018).

12. Albuquerque T, Isaakidis P, Das M, Saranchuk P, Andries A, Misquita D et al. Infection control in households of drugresistant tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV in Mumbai, India. Public Health Action. 2014;4(1):35 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

13. Guidelines on core components of infection prevention and control programmes at the national and acute health care facility level. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 ( pdf, accessed 18 December 2018).

14. Laboratory biosafety manual (WHO/CDS/ CSR/LYO/2004.11) (third edition). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004 (http://, accessed 18 December 2018).

15. Tuberculosis laboratory biosafety manual(WHO/HTM/TB/2012.11).Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 ( pdf;jsessionid=B5B5D63637AC48EBB87 FAD0D89A18828?sequence=1, accessed 18 December 2018).

16. Latent TB infection: updated and consolidated guidelines for programmatic management (WHO/CDS/TB/2018.4). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 ( latent-tuberculosis-infection/en/, accessed 19 December 2018)

17. Fielding K, Harris R, Karat A, Falconer J, Moore D. Systematic review for evidence of administrative infection control interventions to reduce tuberculosis (TB) transmission and three related background questions (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018085226). National Institute for Health Research; 2018 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

18. Roth V, Garrett D, Laserson K, Starling C, Kritski A, Medeiros E et al. A multicenter evaluation of tuberculin skin test positivity and conversion among health care workers in Brazilian hospitals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2005;9(12):1335–42 (, accessed 18 December 2018)

19. Wenger PN, Beck-Sague C, Jarvis W, Otten J, Breeden A, Orfas D. Control of nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among healthcare workers and HIV-infected patients. Lancet 995;345(8944):235–40 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

20. Welbel SF, French AL, Bush P, DeGuzman D, Weinstein RA. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis: a 10-year experience. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37(8):668–73 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

21. Blumberg HM, Watkins DL, Berschling JD, Antle A, Moore P, White N et al. Preventing the nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(9):658–63 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

22. Bangsberg DR, Crowley K, Moss A, Dobkin JF, McGregor C, Neu HC. Reduction in tuberculin skin-test conversions among medical house staff associated with improved tuberculosis infection control practices. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18(8):566–70 (https://www.ncbi.nlm., accessed 18 December 2018).

23. Holzman R. A comprehensive control program reduces transmission of tuberculosis (TB) to hospital staff. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:733.

24. Yanai H, Limpakarnjanarat K, Uthaivoravit W, Mastro T, Mori T, Tappero J. Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease among health care workers, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7(1):36–45 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

25. Harries A, Hargreaves N, Gausi F, Kwanjana J, Salaniponi F. Preventing tuberculosis among health workers in Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(7):526–31 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

26. Jacobson G, Hoyt DD, Bogen E. Tuberculosis in hospital employees as affected by an admission chest x-ray screening program. Dis Chest. 1957;32(1):27–38 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

27. Stroud LA, Tokars JI, Grieco MH, Crawford JT, Culver DH, Edlin BR et al. Evaluation of infection control measures in preventing the nosocomial transmission of multidrugresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a New York City hospital. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 1995;16(3):141–7 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

28. Moro M, Errante I, Infuso A, Sodano L, Gori A, Orcese C et al. Effectiveness of infection control measures in controlling a nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV patients in Italy. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000;4(1):61–8 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

29. Baussano I, Bugiani M, Carosso A, Mairano D, Barocelli AP, Tagna M et al. Risk of tuberculin conversion among healthcare workers and the adoption of preventive measures. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64(3):161–6 (, accessed 18 December 2018)

30. Blumberg HM, Sotir M, Erwin M, Bachman R, Shulman JA. Risk of house staff tuberculin skin test conversion in an area with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(4):826–33 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

31. Systematic screening for active tuberculosis: principles and recommendations (WHO/HTM/TB/2013.04). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

32. Guidelines for intensified tuberculosis case-finding and isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings (WHO/HTM/TB/2011.11). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011 ( accessed 18 December 2018).

33. Consolidated guidelines on HIV testing services. 5Cs: consent,confidentiality, counselling, correct results and connection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

34. Bryan CS. The hospital tuberculosis registry: an aid to infection control. Am J Infect Control. 1983;11(2):57–62 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

35. da Costa PA, Trajman A, de Queiroz Mello FC, Goudinho S, Silva MMV, Garret D et al. Administrative measures for preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Hosp Infect. 2009;72(1):57–64 (https://www.ncbi., accessed 18 December 2018).

36. Louther J, Rivera P, Feldman J, Villa N, DeHovitz J, Sepkowitz KA. Risk of tuberculin conversion according to occupation among health care workers at a New York City hospital. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(1):201–5 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

37. O’Hara L, Yassi A, Bryce E, van Rensburg AJ, Engelbrecht M, Zungu M et al. Infection control and tuberculosis in health care workers: an assessment of 28 hospitals in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017;21(3):320–6 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

38. Sinkowitz RL, Fridkin SK, Manangan L, Wenger PN, Jarvis WR. Status of tuberculosis infection control programs at United States hospitals, 1989 to 1992. Am J Infect Control. 1996;24(4):226–34 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

39. Jones SG. Evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus rule out tuberculosis critical pathway as an intervention to decrease nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis in the inpatient setting. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2002;16(8):389–94 (, accessed 18 December 2018)

40. Jarvis WR. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am J Infect Control. 1995;23(2):146–51 (https://www.ncbi.nlm., accessed 18 December 2018).

41. Uyamadu N, Ahkee S, Carrico R, Tolentino A, Wojda B, Ramirez J. Reduction in tuberculin skin-test conversion rate after improved adherence to tuberculosis isolation. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 1997;18(8):575–6 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

42. Maloney SA, Pearson ML, Gordon MT, Del Castillo R, Boyle JF, Jarvis WR. Efficacy of control measures in preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrugresistant tuberculosis to patients and health care workers. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(2):90–5 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

43. Fridkin SK, Manangan L, Bolyard E, Jarvis WR. SHEA-CDC TB survey, part II: efficacy of TB infection control programs at member hospitals, 1992. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 1995;16(3):135–40 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

44. Behrman AJ, Shofer FS. Tuberculosis exposure and control in an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31(3):370–5 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

45. WHO treatment guidelines for drugresistant tuberculosis, 2016 update. October 2016 revision (WHO/HTM/ TB/2016.04). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 ( eng.pdf, accessed 18 December 2018).

46. Guidelines for treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis and patient care, 2017 update (WHO/HTM/TB/2017.05). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

47. Ethics guidance for the implementation of the End TB strategy (WHO/ HTM/TB/2017.07). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 ( eng.pdf?sequence=1, accessed 18 December 2018).

48. Gammon J. The psychological consequences of source isolation: a review of the literature. J Clin Nurs. 1999;8(1):13–21 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

49. Davies H, Rees J. Psychological effects of isolation nursing (1): mood disturbance. Nurs Stand. 2000;14(28):35 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

50. Harris TG, Meissner JS, Proops D. Delay in diagnosis leading to nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis at a New York City health care facility. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(2):155–60 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

51. Cheng S, Chen W, Yang Y, Chu P, Liu X, Zhao M et al. Effect of diagnostic and treatment delay on the risk of tuberculosis transmission in Shenzhen, China: an Observational Cohort Study, 1993– 2010. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e67516 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

52. Andrews JC, Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Pottie K, Meerpohl JJ, Coello PA et al. GRADE guidelines: 15. Going from evidence to recommendation – determinants of a recommendation’s direction and strength. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013;66(7):726–35 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

53. Neumann I, Santesso N, Akl EA, Rind DM, Vandvik PO, Alonso-Coello P et al. A guide for health professionals to interpret and use recommendations in guidelines developed with the GRADE approach. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016;72:45–55 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

54. Report of the 16th meeting of the Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Tuberculosis (WHO/HTM/TB/2016.10). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 ( stag_tb_report_2016.pdf?ua=1, accessed 18 December 2018).

55. Dharmadhikari AS, Mphahlele M, Stoltz A, Venter K, Mathebula R, Masotla T et al. Surgical face masks worn by patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: impact on infectivity of air on a hospital ward. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(10):1104–9 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

56. Hirst JA, Howick J, Aronson JK, Roberts N, Perera R, Koshiaris C et al. The need for randomization in animal trials: an overview of systematic reviews. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e98856 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

57. Van der Worp HB, Howells DW, Sena ES, Porritt MJ, Rewell S, O’Collins V et al. Can animal models of disease reliably inform human studies? PLoS Med. 2010;7(3):e1000245 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

58. Baral SC, Karki DK, Newell JN. Causes of stigma and discrimination associated with tuberculosis in Nepal: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2007;7(1):211 (Ð2458Ð7-211, accessed 18 December 2018).

59. Tsai K-S, Chang H-L, Chien S-T, Chen K-L, Chen K-H, Mai M-H et al. Childhood tuberculosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination. Pediatr Neonatol. 2013;54(5):295–302 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

60. Cardona M, Bek M, Mills K, Isaacs D, Alperstein G. Transmission of tuberculosis from a seven-year-old child in a Sydney school. J Paediatr Child Health. 1999;35(4):375–8 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

61. Curtis AB, Ridzon R, Vogel R, Mcdonough S, Hargreaves J, Ferry J et al. Extensive transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a child. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(20):1491–5 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

62. Muñoz FM, Ong LT, Seavy D, Medina D, Correa A, Starke JR. Tuberculosis among adult visitors of children with suspected tuberculosis and employees at a children’s hospital. Infect Cont Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23(10):568–72 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

63. Beck M, Antle BJ, Berlin D, Granger M, Meighan K, Neilson BJ et al. Wearing masks in a pediatric hospital: developing practical guidelines (Commentary). Can J Public Health. 2004;95(4):256–57 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

64. Fella P, Rivera P, Hale M, Squires K, Sepkowitz K. Dramatic decrease in tuberculin skin test conversion rate among employees at a hospital in New York City. Am J Infect Control. 1995;23(6):352–6 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

65. Mphaphlele M, Dharmadhikari AS, Jensen PA, Rudnick SN, Van Reenen TH, Pagano MA et al. Institutional tuberculosis transmission. Controlled trial of upper room ultraviolet air disinfection: a basis for new dosing guidelines. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(4):477–84 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

66. Escombe AR, Moore DA, Gilman RH, Navincopa M, Ticona E, Mitchell B et al. Upper-room ultraviolet light and negative air ionization to prevent tuberculosis transmission. PLoS Med. 2009;6(3):e1000043 (https://journals.plos. org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000043, accessed 18 December 2018).

67. Xu P, Kujundzic E, Peccia J, Schafer MP, Moss G, Hernandez M et al. Impact of environmental factors on efficacy of upperroom air ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for inactivating airborne mycobacteria. Environ Sci Tech. 2005;39(24):9656–64 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

68. Muecke C, Isler M, Menzies D, Allard R, Tannenbaum T, Brassard P. The use of environmental factors as adjuncts to traditional tuberculosis contact investigation. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10(5):530–5 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

69. Menzies D, Fanning A, Yuan L, FitzGerald JM. Factors associated with tuberculin conversion in Canadian microbiology and pathology workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167(4):599–602 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

70. International health regulations (2005) (third edition). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016 (, accessed 20 December 2018).

71. Zingg W, Holmes A, Dettenkofer M, Goetting T, Secci F, Clack L et al. Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: a systematic review and expert consensus. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(2):212–24 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

72. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

73. WHO handbook for guideline development (second edition). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

74. Schünemann H, Brożek J, Guyatt GH, Oxman A, (eds.). GRADE handbook – handbook for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations using the GRADE approach (2013 update). GRADE Working Group. 2013 (, accessed 18 December 2018).

Book navigation