Depending on the availability, resources and capacity, appropriate specimens from suspected sites of involvement should be collected for rapid testing using mWRDs or culture, and histopathological examination should be done for children with EPTB whenever possible. WHO recommends that NTPs replace microscopy as the initial diagnostic test for TB with mWRDs, which can be used on various respiratory and non-respiratory specimens (Table 4.4) (76). Box 4.3 summarizes WHO recommendations on the use of rapid diagnostic tests for TB detection.
a Use of a blood specimen is recommended for people living with HIV with signs and symptoms of disseminated TB.
b Use of urine is recommended for children and adolescents living with HIV (see specific recommendations in Box 4.4).