In children and adolescents between 3 months and 16 years of age with non-severe TB (without suspicion or evidence of MDR/RR-TB), a 4-month treatment regimen (2HRZ(E)/2HR) should be used.
(Strong recommendation, moderate certainty of evidence)
- Non-severe TB is defined as: Peripheral lymph node TB; intrathoracic lymph node TB without airway obstruction; uncomplicated TB pleural effusion or paucibacillary, non-cavitary disease, confined to one lobe of the lungs, and without a miliary pattern.
- Children and adolescents who do not meet the criteria for non-severe TB should receive the standard six-month treatment regimen (2HRZE/4HR), or recommended treatment regimens for severe forms of extrapulmonary TB.
- The use of ethambutol in the first two months of treatment is recommended in settings with a high prevalence of HIV,²⁶ or of isoniazid resistance.²⁷