2.3.2 Key References and Supporting WHO Guidelines

Charalambous, S., Innes, C., Muirhead, D., Kumaranayake, L., Fielding, K., Pemba, L., et al. (2007b). Evaluation of a workplace HIV treatment programme in South Africa. AIDS (London, England), 21 Suppl 3, S73-8.

Corbett EL, Dauya E, Matambo R, Cheung YB, Makamure B, Bassett MT, et al. (2006). Uptake of workplace HIV counselling and testing: A cluster-randomised trial in Zimbabwe. PLoS Medicine, 3(7), e238.

Corbett, L. (2007). Health worker access to HIV/TB prevention, treatment and care services in Africa: Situational analysis and mapping of routine and current best practices. Unpublished manuscript. -study commissioned for the guideline development process.

Falagas, M. E., Bliziotis, I. A., & Soteriades, E. S. (2006). A prospective study of services utilization of a hospital-based employee health clinic. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 12(8), CR341-4.

London, L. (1998). AIDS control and the workplace: The role of occupational health services in South Africa. International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 28(3), 575-591.

Moodley PP, & Bachman CO. (2002). Inequity in occupational health services for government hospital workers in South Africa. Occupational Medicine, 52(7), 393-399.

Positive Practice Environments: Quality Workplaces for Quality Care. Campaign Overview 2009.

Rebman, R. (Ed), Guzman, R., Dybka, L., Watson, R., Lavoie, M., Yassi, A., Gamage, B., et al. (2008). Proceedings of the international commission on occupational health and American college of occupational and environmental medicine 2007 state-of-the-art conference pre-conference workshop: Protecting the health of health care workers: A global perspective. Vancouver, B.C., Canada.

Swaziland, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (2008). M&E Framework for the Health Sector Response to HIV/AIDS. http://gametlibrary.worldbank.org/FILES/82_HIV%20M&E%20Plan%20for%20Health%20Sector% 20%28zero%20draft%29-Swaziland.pdf

Task Force on Comm. Prevention Services. (2007). Proceedings of the Task Force Meeting: Worksite Reviews. Atlanta, GA: Centre for Disease Control Prevention.

Uebel, K. E., Nash, J., & Avalos, A. (2007). Caring for the caregivers: Models of HIV/AIDS care and treatment provision for health care workers in Southern Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196 Suppl 3, S500-4.

World Health Organization. (1994). Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All: The Way to Health at Work. http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/globstrategy/en/index.html.

World Health Organization. (1999). Guidelines on Quality Management in Multidisciplinary Occupational Health Services. http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/eurqualman/en/index.html.

WHO, ILO, ICOH, FIOH. (2005). Basic Occupational Health Services: Strategy, Structure, Activities, Resources. http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/bohsbooklet/en/index.html

World Health Organization. (2001). Occupational Health: A Manual for Primary Health Care Workers. http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/emhealthcarework/en/index.html.

World Health Organization (June 2006). Declaration on Workers Health, Stresa, Italy.http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/declaration2006/en/index.html.

Yassi A, O'Hara L, LoChang J, Lockhart K, Spiegel J. (2009a). Implementation of Policies to Improve Health Worker Access to Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care Services for HIV and TB: A Synthesis Report. Unpublished manuscript. Geneva: WHO

Supported by Existing Guidelines:

ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS, 2005-

  • Section 7: The purpose of these guidelines is to promote the sound management of HIV in health services, including the prevention of occupational exposure. Furthermore, the purpose is to ensure that health-care workers have decent, safe and healthy working conditions, while ensuring effective care that respects the needs and rights of patients especially those living with HIV. These guidelines rest on the basic principle that the process of policy development and implementation should be the result of consultation and collaboration between all concerned parties, based on social dialogue and including, to the extent possible, persons and workers living with HIV. They take a rights-based approach to HIV, as promoted by the Declaration of Commitment and the international community at large, expanding on ILO and WHO HIV and occupational safety and health instruments.

Section 15b: In the particular context of the health sector, government is, therefore, at the same time, a regulator, an enforcer of regulations, and an employer. It should ensure that these functions are kept separate in order to minimize conflicts of interest and protect the rights of workers adequately, especially where workers' organizations are not recognized. Governments, in collaboration with employers, workers and their representatives, and others with responsibilities for health services, should provide the relevant regulatory framework and, where necessary, revise labour laws and other legislation to include provisions that: (b) promote the implementation of a national system for occupational safety and health management in health services, including workplace regulations and guidelines aimed at achieving decent working conditions and a safe working environment that treats an HIV occupational exposure incident in a manner consistent with other occupational injuries.

Section 21: Prevention and control of occupational risks related to infectious diseases - including HIV, hepatitis and TB - are more likely to be achieved if considered together with other workplace hazards and risks in health services.

Global Plan of Action on workers' health, 2008-2017-

  • Objective 1.9: Measures need to be taken to minimize the gaps between different groups of workers in terms of levels of risk and health status. Particular attention should be paid to high-risk sectors of economic activity, and to the underserved and vulnerable working populations, such as younger and older workers, persons with disabilities and migrant workers, taking account of gender aspects. Specific programmes should be established for the occupational health and safety of health-care workers.

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