2.1.2 Key References and Supporting WHO Guidelines

Baleta, A. (2008) Swaziland nurses the wellbeing of its health workers. Lancet. 371:1901-1902.

Buve, A., Foaster, S. D., Mbwili, C., Mungo, E., Tollenare, N., & Zeko, M. (1994). Mortality among female nurses in the face of the AIDS epidemic: A pilot study in Zambia. AIDS (London, England), 8(3): 396.

Chanda, D., & Gosnell, D. J. (2006). The impact of tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian nursing workforce. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 11(1): 4.

Chen, L., Evans, T., Anand, S., Boufford, J. I., Brown, H., Chowdhury, M., et al. (2004). Human resources for health: Overcoming the crisis. Lancet, 364(9449): 1984-1990.

Connelly, D., Veriava, Y., Roberts, S., Tsotetsi, J., Jordan, A., DeSilva, E., et al. (2007). Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health care workers in South Africa. South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde, 97(2): 115-120.

Corbett, E. L., Muzangwa, J., Chaka, K., Dauya, E., Cheung, Y. B., Munyati, S. S., et al. (2007). Nursing and community rates of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among students in Harare, Zimbabwe. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 44(3):317-323.

Corbett, L. (2007). Health worker access to HIV/TB prevention, treatment and care services in Africa:

Situational analysis and mapping of routine and current best practices. Unpublished report - available through WHO Health Systems Strengthening.

Ekwueme DU, Weniger BG, Chen RT (2002). Model-based estimates of risks of disease transmission and economic costs of seven injection devices in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80(11): 859-875.

Galvin SR, De Vries DH. (2008). Access barriers to HIV care among health workers in Swaziland. The Capacity Project.

Harries, AD, Hargreaves, NJ, Gausi, F., Kwanjana, JH, & Salaniponi, FM (2002). High death rates in health care workers and teachers in Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 96(1): 34-37.

International Labour Office. (April, 2007). The Decent Work Agenda in Africa: 2007-2017; Report of Director-General to the Eleventh African Regional Meeting, Addis Ababa.

Joshi R, Reingold AL, Menzies D, Pai M. (2006). Tuberculosis amon health-care workers in low- and middle income countries: A Systematic Review. PLosMedicine, 3(12): 2376-2391.

Kayanja HK, Debanne S, King C, Whalen CC. (2005). Tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Kampala, Uganda. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(6): 686-688.

Kassim S, Zuber P, Wiktor SZ, Diomande FVK, Coulibaly I-M, Coulibaly D, Kadio A, Yapi A, Toure KC, Blekou PB, Irie B, Greenberg AE, Binkin NJ. (2000). Tuberculin skin testing to assess the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 4(4): 321-326.

*Kiragu K, Nyumbu M, Ngulube T, Njobvu P, Mwaba C, Kalimbwe A, Bradford S. Caring for the Caregivers: An HIV/AIDS Workplace Intervention for Hospital Staff in Zambia. Evaluation Results. July 2008. Horizans Programme, PATH.

Moodley PP, & Bachman CO. (2002). Inequity in occupational health services for government hospital workers in South Africa. Occupational Medicine, 52(7): 393-399.

Narasimhan V, Brown H, Pablos-Mendez A, Adams O, Dussault G, Elzinga G, Nordstrom A, Habte D, Jacobs M, Solimano G, Sewankambo N, Wibulpolprasert S, Evans T, Chen L. (2004). Responding to the global human resources crisis. Lancet, 363: 1469-1472.

Pruss-Ustun A, Rapiti E, Hutin Y. (2005). Estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to contaminated sharps injuries among health-care workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48: 482-490.

Sepkowitz KA. (1994) Tuberculosis and the health care worker: A historical perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine, 120: 71-79.

South African Department of Public Service and Administration. (2008). The Draft Employee Health and Wellness Strategic Framework for the Public Service.

Stenson AL, Charalambous s, Dwada T, Pemba L, Du Toit JD, Baggaley R, Grant AD, Churchyard GJ. (2005). Evaluation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) -related counselling in a workplace-based ART implementation programme, South Africa. AIDS Care, 17(8):949-957.

*Tavitiam SM, Spalek VH, Bailey RP. (2003)A pharmacist-managed clinic for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers. Am J Health Syst Pharm.60(18):1856-61.

*Uebel KE, Nash J, Avalos A. (2007) Caring for the Caregivers: Models of HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Provision for Health Care Workers in Southern Africa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196:S500-S504

*Uebel K, Friedland G, Pawinski R, at al. (2006) HAART for hospital health care workers- an innovative programme. S. Afr Med J. 96:128-33.

World Health Organization. (May 2007). Global Plan of Action on Workers Health 2008-2017. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf files/WHA60/A60 R26-en.pdf

"Included in Cochrane-style systematic evidence review

Supported by Existing Guidelines:

ILO/WHO PEP guidelines, 2008:

  • Workers should be able to access at least the first doses of PEP within 4 hours of the exposure (and no later than 72 hours), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
  • In settings with very low HIV prevalence, where health care workers and occasionally workers in other occupations (including, but not limited to, law enforcement personnel, emergency and rescue workers, fire fighters, prison guards, social service staff who work with injection drug users, waste-disposal personnel and sex workers) may be more likely exposed to HIV-infected blood and body fluids, the priorities set for providing PEP based on exposure circumstances should be rationalized.

ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work, 2001

  • ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work applies to workers and their families and the code states that: 'in light of the nature of the epidemic employee assistance programmes may need to be established or extended appropriately to include a range of services for workers as members of families, and to support their family members. This should be done in consultation with workers and their representatives, and can be done in collaboration with government and other relevant stakeholders in accordance with resources and needs' (section 9.8.)

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